1. #1
    klcarroll's Avatar Banned
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    This is an overview of the various U.S. Submarines actually used in SH4. This has been a surprisingly difficult project, as many of the commonly accessible information sources differ on many of the technical points. (....So if you find something that doesn't agree with one of your books, don't be too quick to jump on me. )



    S CLASS




    These are really World War 1 vintage boats. The first boat in the class was commissioned in 1918, and the last boat, S-51, was commissioned in 1925.

    One problem with describing the S-Boats stems from the fact that they were in a state of almost continuous modification throughout the late 20s and 30s. I have broken them into four specification groups here, but the reality is that by the time WWII came around, even those four groups are an oversimplification.

    One serious problem these boats faced was their original design range of 2600 to 3000 nm. This range was obviously inadequate for Pacific service, and radical steps were taken to deal with this: ....like using part of the main ballast tank volume to store diesel.

    While these storage tactics did allow the boats to achieve ranges in the 5000 to 8000 nm range, they also contributed to the tendency of these boats to produce more or less continuous oil slicks in their wakes. (Something the S-Boat skipper needed to keep in mind when "playing" with Japanese DDs.)

    Too slow for "Fleet Duty", they were typically used for recon and supply missions. Crew accommodations were cramped, and in tropical waters, their lack of air conditioning turned them into virtual pressure cookers; .....filled with a stench that defies description. It is said that this is the class that gave birth to the term "Pig Boat". In spite of all the shortcomings, they did achieve a surprising number of successes. Two factors tended to offset some of the negatives:

    First, they were surprisingly fast under water, with a typical max speed of 11 knots.

    Secondly, their torpedo tubes were too short to accommodate the new MK14 torpedo, so they were forced to use the older MK10: .......A torpedo that actually worked!

    The photo below shows an S-Boat next to a Gato.




    ........And some deck close-ups.






    The specs for the four different variants are shown below.

    S1 Type (Group 1)
    Test Depth 200 ft / 60 m
    Crush Depth: 300 ft (approx) / 90m (approx)
    Displacement: 800 tons surfaced, 1062 tons submerged
    Length: 219'3"
    Beam: 20'6"
    Draft: 15'1"
    Speed: 14.5 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
    Armament: one 4"/50 Deck Gun, 4 bow torpedo tubes, 12-14 21" torpedoes
    AA Armament: one .50 cal MG
    Complement: 50
    Diesel engines, 1200 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1500 h.p. submerged
    Range: 5000nm @ 10 knots surface
    Boats in Class: S-17 - S-18 - S-19 - S-20 - S-21 - S-22 - S-23 - S-24 - S-25 - S-26 - S-27 - S-28 - S-29 - S-30 - S-31 - S-32 - S-33 - S-34 - S-35 - S-36 - S-37 - S-38 - S-39 - S-40 - S-41


    S11 Type (Group 2)
    Test Depth 200 ft / 60 m
    Crush Depth: 300 ft (approx) / 90m (approx)
    Displacement: 790 tons surfaced, 1092 tons submerged
    Length: 231'
    Beam: 21'6"
    Draft: 12'6"
    Speed: 15 knots surfaced, 10.5 knots submerged
    Armament: one 4"/50, 4 bow torpedo tubes, 12 to 14 21" torpedoes
    AA Armament: one .50 cal MG
    Complement: 44
    Diesel engines, 2000 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1200 h.p. submerged
    Range: 5000nm @ 10 knots surface
    Boats in Class: S-4 - S-5 - S-6 - S-7 - S-8 - S-9 - S-10 - S-11 - S-12 - S-13 - S-14 - S-15 - S-16


    S42 Type (Group 3)
    Test Depth 200 ft / 60 m
    Crush Depth: 300 ft (approx) / 90m (approx)
    Displacement: 850 tons surfaced, 1126 tons submerged
    Length: 225'3"
    Beam: 20'6"
    Draft: 15'3"
    Speed: 14.5 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
    Armament: one 4"/50, 4 bow torpedo tubes, 12 to 14 21" torpedoes
    AA Armament: one .50 cal MG
    Complement: 51
    Diesel engines, 1200 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1500 h.p. submerged
    Range: 5000nm @ 10 knots surface
    Boats in Class: S-42 - S-43 - S-44 - S-45 - S-46 - S-47


    S48 Type (Group 4)
    Test Depth 200 ft / 60 m
    Crush Depth: 300 ft (approx) / 90m (approx)
    Displacement: 1000 tons surfaced, 1458 tons submerged
    Length: 267'
    Beam: 21'6"
    Draft: 10'11"
    Speed: 14.5 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
    Armament: one 4"/50, 4 bow and 1 stern(?) torpedo tubes, 12 to 14 21" torpedoes
    AA Armament: one .50 cal MG
    Complement: 51
    Diesel engines, 2000 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1500 h.p. submerged
    Range: 8000 nm @ 10 knots
    Boats in Class: S-48 - S-49 - S-50 - S-51



    PORPOISE CLASS



    This is really the first U.S. boat to meet the Navy's criteria for a "Fleet Boat". With it's extended range and good surface speed, this boat was capable of performing the missions that the U.S. planners were dreaming up in the late 30's.

    This class also featured many modern innovations like all welded hulls and air conditioning. Air Conditioning my sound like a luxury, but it is far from it! It eliminated two known killers: .....First, the condensation that "kills" electronics, and secondly, the oppressive tropical heat that erodes crew efficiency and kills submarines.

    This class also saw the introduction of Diesel-Electric drive. In this drive setup, the diesels all turned generators, and the electric motors were exclusively responsible for rotating the screws. The only difference between surfaced and submerged operation was where the electricity came from. The big "upside" to this system was that now, going from "surface run" to "submerged run" no longer required that the diesels be mechanically disconnected from the driveline and the electric motors engaged. All you had to do was close the vents and switch to batteries.

    The Diesel-Electric drive was to be a standard U.S. feature from this class on.

    The Porpoise Class was designed from the start to use the MK14 torpedo, and carried between 16 and 18 "fish", depending on the variant.

    P1 Type
    Test Depth 250 ft / 75m
    Crush Depth: 375 ft (approx) / 112m (approx)
    Displacement: 1310 tons surfaced, 1934 tons submerged
    Length: 301'
    Beam: 25'
    Draft: 13'10"
    Speed: 19 knots surfaced, 8 knots submerged
    Armament: one 3"/50, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 16 21" torpedoes
    AA Armament: two .50 cal MG and two .30 cal MG
    Complement: 50
    Diesel-Electric Drive: 2 Diesel engines / 2 Electric motors 4300hp surface /2085hp submerged.
    Range: 12,000 nm @ 10 knots
    Boats in Type: SS-172 "Porpoise", SS-173 "Pike"

    P3 Type (Also referred to as Shark Class)
    Test Depth 250 ft / 75m
    Crush Depth: 375 ft (approx) / 112m (approx)
    Displacement: 1315 tons surfaced, 1968 tons submerged
    Length: 298'
    Beam: 25'
    Draft: 13'10"
    Speed: 19.5 knots surfaced, 8.25 knots submerged
    Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 18 21" torpedoes
    AA Armament: two .50 cal MG and two .30 cal MG
    Complement: 50
    Diesel-Electric Drive: 2 Diesel engines / 2 Electric motors: 4300hp surface /2085hp submerged.
    Range: 12,000 nm @ 10 knots
    Boats in Type: SS-174 "Shark", SS-175 "Tarpon"

    P5 Type (Also referred to as Perch Class)
    Test Depth 250 ft / 75m
    Crush Depth: 375 ft (approx) / 112m (approx)
    Displacement: 1,330 tons surfaced, 1,998 tons submerged
    Length: 300'6"
    Beam: 25'
    Draft: 13'10"
    Speed: 19.5 knots surfaced, 8.75 knots submerged
    Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 18 21" torpedoes
    AA Armament: two .50 cal MG and two .30 cal MG
    Complement: 50
    Diesel-Electric Drive: 2 Diesel engines / 2 Electric motors: 4300hp surf. / 2336hp submerged
    Range: 12,000 nm @ 10 knots
    Boats in Type: SS-176 "Perch", SS-177 "Pickerel", SS-178 "Permit", SS-179 "Plunger", SS-180 "Pollack", SS-181 "Pompano"



    SALMON CLASS





    The Salmon Class was basically an improved P Class. A little more speed, two more stern tubes, and more torpedo storage. It was rather quickly superceded by the Sargo Class.

    It was simply a good, solid boat: ......but much better things were planned.

    Test Depth 250 ft/ 75m
    Crush Depth: 375 ft (approx) / 112m (approx)
    Displacement: 1,450 tons surfaced, 2,198 tons submerged
    Length: 298'
    Beam: 26'
    Draft: 14'3"
    Speed: 21 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
    Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
    AA Armament: two .50 cal MG and two .30 cal MG
    Complement: 70
    Diesel-Electric Drive: 4 Diesel engines / 2 electric motors 5500 hp surf. / 3300hp submerged
    Range: 12,000 nm @ 10 knots
    Boats in Class: SS-182 "Salmon", SS-183 "Seal", SS-184 "Skipjack", SS-185 "Snapper", SS-186 "Stingray", SS-187 "Sturgeon"



    SARGO CLASS




    While general specifications do not reflect any substantial changes from the Salmon Class, and many reference sources lump them together in a Salmon/Sargo Class; .....there were, in fact, changes. The most significant change being an increase in displacement, allowing for more fuel storage. Range was increased to 15,000 nm.

    Note: Some sources list the Sargo Class total diesel horsepower at 6140 and others indicate 5500. This difference may be due to engine upgrades that occurred during the service life of the boats.

    Test Depth 250 ft/ 75m
    Crush Depth: 375 ft (approx) / 112m (approx)
    Displacement: 1,450 tons surfaced, 2,350 tons submerged
    Length: 300'
    Beam: 27'
    Draft: 13'9"
    Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
    Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
    Complement: 78
    Diesel-Electric Drive: 4 Diesel engines/ 4 electric motors: 6140hp surf. / 2740hp submerged
    Range: 15,000 miles surfaced
    Boats in Class: SS-188 "Sargo", SS-189 "Saury", SS-190 "Spearfish", SS-191 "Sculpin", SS-192 "Sailfish", SS-193 "Swordfish", SS-194 "Seadragon", SS-195 "Sealion", SS-196 "Searaven", SS-197 "Seawolf"



    TAMBOR CLASS




    This is another class that showed small, incremental improvements over its predecessor. While performance and range were virtually identical to the Sargo Class, the Tambor Class finally gave the U.S. submariners what they had been begging for: ....SIX forward torpedo tubes!

    Test Depth 250 ft/ 75m
    Crush Depth: 375 ft (approx) / 112m (approx)
    Displacement: 1475 tons surfaced, 2198 tons submerged
    Length: 308'
    Beam: 27'
    Draft: 13'9"
    Speed: 21 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
    Armament: 1 3"/50, 6 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
    Complement: 75
    Diesel-Electric Drive: 4 Diesel engines/ 4 electric motors: 5400hp surf. / 2740hp submerged
    Boats in Class: SS-198 "Tambor", SS-199 "Tautog", SS-200 "Thresher", SS-201 "Triton", SS-202 "Trout", SS-203 "Tuna"



    GAR CLASS



    This class retained all of the favorable characteristics of the previous class, with modifications to allow even more fuel storage, and a higher cruising speed.

    Test Depth: 250 ft/ 75m
    Crush Depth: 375 ft (approx) / 112m (approx)
    Displacement: 1475 tons surfaced, 2370 tons submerged
    Length: 253'
    Beam: 21'6"
    Draft: 11'9"
    Speed: 21 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
    Armament: 1 3"/50, 6 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
    Complement: 85
    Diesel-Electric Drive: 4 Diesel engines/ 4 electric motors: 5400hp surf. / 2740hp submerged
    Boats in Class: SS-206 "Gar", SS-207 "Grampus", SS-208 "Grayback", SS-209 "Grayling", SS-210 "Grenadier", SS-211 "Gudgeon"



    GATO CLASS




    The Gato was the Fleet Type Submarine that the Porpoise, Salmon, Sargo, Tambor, and Gar classes had been building up to.

    Improvements over the previous class include 8 watertight compartments rather than 7, a 300 foot test depth, and improved powerplants for a higher cruising speed.


    Test Depth - 300 ft / 90 m
    Crush Depth: 450 ft (approx) / 135m (approx)
    Displacement: 1526 tons surfaced, 2424 tons submerged
    Length: 311'
    Beam: 27'3"
    Draft: 16'10"
    Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
    Armament: 1 3"/50 or 1 4"/50 or 1 5"/50, 6 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torp
    AA Armament: 1 or 2 40mm single, or 1 or 2 20mm single, or 2 .50 MG, or 2 .30 MG
    Complement: 80
    Diesel-Electric Drive: 4 Diesel engines/ 4 electric motors: 5400hp surf. / 2740hp submerged
    Range: 11,800 nm @ 10knots surface / 100 nm @ 3 knots submerged


    Boats in Class: USS Gato (SS-212) USS Greenling (SS-213) USS Grouper (SS-214) USS Growler (SS-215) USS Grunion (SS-216) USS Guardfish (SS-217) USS Albacore (SS-218) USS Amberjack (SS-219) USS Barb (SS-220) USS Blackfish (SS-221) USS Bluefish (SS-222) USS Bonefish (SS-223) USS Cod (SS-224) USS Cero (SS-225) USS Corvina (SS-226) USS Darter (SS-227) USS Drum (SS-228) USS Flying Fish (SS-229) USS Finback (SS-230) USS Haddock (SS-231) USS Halibut (SS-232) USS Herring (SS-233) USS Kingfish (SS-234) USS Shad (SS-235) USS Silversides (SS-236) USS Trigger (SS-237) USS Wahoo (SS-238) USS Whale (SS-239) USS Angler (SS-240) USS Bashaw (SS-241) USS Bluegill (SS-242) USS Bream (SS-243) USS Cavalla (SS-244) USS ***** (SS-245) USS Croaker (SS-246) USS Dace (SS-247) USS Dorado (SS-248) USS Flasher (SS-249) USS Flier (SS-250) USS Flounder (SS-251) USS Gabilan (SS-252) USS Gunnel (SS-253) USS Gurnard (SS-254) USS Haddo (SS-255) USS Hake (SS-256) USS Harder (SS-257) USS Hoe (SS-258) USS Jack (SS-259) USS Lapon (SS-260) USS Mingo (SS-261) USS Muskallunge (SS-262) USS Paddle (SS-263) USS Pargo (SS-264) USS Peto (SS-265) USS Pogy (SS-266) USS Pompon (SS-267) USS Puffer (SS-268) USS Rasher (SS-269) USS Raton (SS-270) USS Ray (SS-271) USS Redfin (SS-272) USS Robalo (SS-273) USS Rock (SS-274) USS Runner (SS-275) USS Sawfish (SS-276) USS Scamp (SS-277) USS Scorpion (SS-278) USS Snook (SS-279) USS Steelhead (SS-280) USS Sunfish (SS-281) USS Tunny (SS-282) USS Tinosa (SS-283) USS Tullibee (SS-284)



    BALAO CLASS




    The Balao Class was a significantly improved Gato. A change to 7/8" high tensile steel for the pressure hull gave the Balao a test depth of 400 feet, and significantly improved it's resistance to battle damage.

    This was also the class that saw the introduction of an improved TDC, and the Bathythermograph for detecting cold water layers, or thermoclines.

    Test Depth - 400 ft / 120 m
    Crush Depth: 600 ft (approx) / 180m (approx)
    Displacement: 1526 tons surfaced, 2424 tons submerged
    Length: 311'
    Beam: 27'3"
    Draft: 16'10"
    Speed: 21 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
    Armament: 1 3"/50 or 1 4"/50 or 1 5"/50, 6 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torp
    AA Armament: 1 to 3 .50 MG or 2 40mm single
    Complement: 80
    Diesel-Electric Drive: 4 Diesel engines/ 4 electric motors: 5400hp surf. / 2740hp submerged
    Range: 11,800 nm @ 10knots surface / 100 nm @ 3 knots submerged

    Boat in Class: Balao | Billfish | Bowfin | Cabrilla | Capelin | Cisco | Crevalle | Devilfish | Dragonet | Escolar | Hackleback | Lancetfish | Ling | Lionfish | Manta | Moray | Roncador | Sabalo | Sablefish | Seahorse | Skate | Tang | Tilefish | Apogon | Aspro | Batfish | Archer-Fish | Burrfish | Perch | Shark | Sealion | Barbel | Barbero | Baya | Becuna | Bergall | Besugo | Blackfin | Caiman | Blenny | Blower | Blueback | Boarfish | Charr | Chub | Brill | Bugara | Bullhead | Bumper | Cabezon | Dentuda | Capitaine | Carbonero | Carp | Catfish | Entemedor | Chivo | Chopper | Clamagore | Cobbler | Cochino | Corporal | Cubera | Cusk | Diodon | Dogfish | Greenfish | Halfbeak | Dugong | Eel | Espada | Jawfish | Ono | Garlopa | Garrupa | Goldring | Golet | Guavina | Guitarro | Hammerhead | Hardhead | Hawkbill | Icefish | Jallao | Kete | Kraken | Lagarto | Lamprey | Lizardfish | Loggerhead | Macabi | Mapiro | Menhaden | Mero | Needlefish | Nerka | Sand Lance | Picuda | Pampanito | Parche | Bang | Pilotfish | Pintado | Pipefish | Piranha | Plaice | Pomfret | Sterlet | Queenfish | Razorback | Redfish | Ronquil | Scabbardfish | Segundo | Sea Cat | Sea Devil | Sea Dog | Sea Fox | Atule | Spikefish | Sea Owl | Sea Poacher | Sea Robin | Sennet | Piper | Threadfin | Spadefish | Trepang | Spot | Springer | Stickleback | Tiru
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  2. #2
    Excellent post. Thankyou.
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  3. #3
    Celeon999's Avatar Senior Member
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    Very informative , as usual


    Thanks for posting
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  4. #4
    lane2512's Avatar Senior Member
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    klcarroll.....

    For a company guy you are ok I guess. At least you keep us all informed. However my wife is still ticked off over your comments about her dumplings.
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  5. #5
    How did they cool the diesel's on a submarine? I assume they were water-cooled, but how did they remove the heat from the water? Did they use a radiator system that vented the heated air out of the sub?
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  6. #6
    Originally posted by Bucketlung:
    How did they cool the diesel's on a submarine? I assume they were water-cooled, but how did they remove the heat from the water? Did they use a radiator system that vented the heated air out of the sub?
    Dunno if this will link or not....

    Fleet Submarine online


    It was 2 types, "Open" where you used Sea water. Pump it in, circulate through the engine, discharge overboard. Or "Closed" using Fresh water, and a Sea water heat exchanger.
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  7. #7
    klcarroll's Avatar Banned
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    How did they cool the diesel's on a submarine? I assume they were water-cooled, but how did they remove the heat from the water? Did they use a radiator system that vented the heated air out of the sub?
    The U.S. Fleet type subs used water cooled diesels, which were served by a fresh water cooling loop. This eliminated salt water corrosion in the engine's water jackets, and eliminated the possibility of debris or sea life from being drawn into the engine's cooling passages.

    This Fresh water loop was, in turn, cooled by a fresh water/salt water "Heat Exchanger"; ...which was essentially a water-to-water radiator.

    The heat exchangers could be equipped with strainers and large enough passages that debris was not a problem, and they were protected from salt water corrosion with sacrificial zinc elements.

    The resulting hot salt water was typically expelled through the diesel exhaust system, where it provided cooling for the exhaust system, and some additional muffling.

    This system continues to be the preferred way of cooling Marine Diesels to this day.

    *
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  8. #8
    Nice post, i have posted this link before but here it is for a bit more info
    http://www.valoratsea.com/boats.htm
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  9. #9
    Bewolf's Avatar Senior Member
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    Just wondering, as we are at it. I just got my Gato Sub. Now all the pictures I have seen have quite a remarkable structure in front of the conning tower. My Gato however looks like the Gar class I had before. Is that normal, means I just have to get another Tower, or is there something wrong?
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  10. #10
    No there's nothing wrong Bewolf. All you have there is an early war conning tower, as time went by all boats regardless of class that remained in service had their towers cut down and modified. Given time you'll have the option to have the tower modified.
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