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woofiedog
09-14-2006, 07:49 AM
http://digilander.libero.it/lealidellaregia/sai207_file/image008.jpg

http://fandavion.free.fr/ambrosini403-1.jpg

Ambrosini S.A.I.207/403

At the beginning of the war, the Regia Aeronautica (italian air force) had a lot of obsolete planes,
most fighters were biplanes. They also had a few monoplane fighter types of excellent maneuverability,
but their radial powerplants of ca. 1.000PS didn´t allow at least 530km/h. In 1941,
german DB 601 and later also DB 605 engines arrived and were built under licence for the existing
monoplane fighters (some guys [that I insulted here in earlier versions] even tried to use a DB 601 with
a CR.42 biplane), and the results were good, but the speed didn´t reach allied standards. Further, italian fighters
were mostly too weak armed with only two 12,7mm guns. Because the italian industry wasn´t as fitted for war
and capable as the ones of its enemies, they tried to solve the problem with a lightweight fighter:
The Ambrosini S.A.I.207.
This one followed after the S.A.I.107, which had less than 540 PS, but reached 560km/h.
The S.A.I.207 were mostly built of nonstrategic materials, had excellent handling and maneuverability.
Its service ceiling was 12.000m and its armament was typical italian: two 12,7mm Breda MG.
It reached 625km/h with a a 750PS Isotta-Fraschini Delta RC40 V-engine and 2.000 orders came in.
They were cancelled after 15, when the advanced S.A.I.403 was in prototype stadium. 3.000 of them were ordered,
but only the prototype was finished. The S.A.I.403 had improved aerodynamics and armament.
But the development of these attractive planes ended in october, 1943 due to the armistice with the allies.


Appearing in great number since spring/summer 1944, they would have been a problem for the allies.
With intact fuel supply and a anti-bomber-weapon like the later german R4M "Orkan" (Hurricane)
rocket, they would have blown the allied daylight bomber offensive over italy.
Imagine: 650km/h with only 750PS! Compare this with the biplanes of the beginning 1930´s,
which had almost the same power, but less than 400km/h!
Even the excellent Heinkel He 100 out of 1938 needed 1.1750PS for only 20km/h more!


http://www.orologisaiambrosini.com/1.jpeg

http://www.orologisaiambrosini.com/2.jpeg

http://www.orologisaiambrosini.com/5.jpeg


http://www.orologisaiambrosini.com/menu.h2.gif

http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v475/Coridano/3ee10d15.jpg

Specifications:
Ambrosini S.A.I. 403 italian fighter
Dimensions:
Wing span: 9,80m
Length: 8,20m
Height: 2,90m
Weights:
Empty: 1.983kg
Maximum Take-Off: 2.640kg
Performance:
Maximum Speed: 650km/h
Service Ceiling: 10.000m
Normal Range: 937km
Powerplant:
One 750PS Isotta-Fraschini R.C.21/60 V-Engine
Armament:
four 12,7mm Breda-SAFAT MG or each two
12,7mm Breda-SAFAT MG and 20mm MG151/20 cannon

http://www.geocities.com/lastdingo/aviation/sai207-4.jpg

http://www.snyderstreasures.com/eBay/Images/2005/072405/PhotoAmbrosiniCockpit.jpg

Links:
<A HREF="http://www.tgplanes.com/planfile.asp?idplane=214" TARGET=_blank>
<A HREF="http://www.tgplanes.com/planfile.asp?idplane=214%5B/URL%5D" TARGET=_blank>http://www.tgplanes.com/planfile.asp?idplane=214</A></A>
http://www.tgplanes.com/Public/snitz/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=574
http://digilander.libero.it/lealidellaregia/sai207.htm
http://www.finn.it/regia/html/seconda_guerra_mondiale04.htm

woofiedog
09-14-2006, 07:49 AM
http://digilander.libero.it/lealidellaregia/sai207_file/image008.jpg

http://fandavion.free.fr/ambrosini403-1.jpg

Ambrosini S.A.I.207/403

At the beginning of the war, the Regia Aeronautica (italian air force) had a lot of obsolete planes,
most fighters were biplanes. They also had a few monoplane fighter types of excellent maneuverability,
but their radial powerplants of ca. 1.000PS didn´t allow at least 530km/h. In 1941,
german DB 601 and later also DB 605 engines arrived and were built under licence for the existing
monoplane fighters (some guys [that I insulted here in earlier versions] even tried to use a DB 601 with
a CR.42 biplane), and the results were good, but the speed didn´t reach allied standards. Further, italian fighters
were mostly too weak armed with only two 12,7mm guns. Because the italian industry wasn´t as fitted for war
and capable as the ones of its enemies, they tried to solve the problem with a lightweight fighter:
The Ambrosini S.A.I.207.
This one followed after the S.A.I.107, which had less than 540 PS, but reached 560km/h.
The S.A.I.207 were mostly built of nonstrategic materials, had excellent handling and maneuverability.
Its service ceiling was 12.000m and its armament was typical italian: two 12,7mm Breda MG.
It reached 625km/h with a a 750PS Isotta-Fraschini Delta RC40 V-engine and 2.000 orders came in.
They were cancelled after 15, when the advanced S.A.I.403 was in prototype stadium. 3.000 of them were ordered,
but only the prototype was finished. The S.A.I.403 had improved aerodynamics and armament.
But the development of these attractive planes ended in october, 1943 due to the armistice with the allies.


Appearing in great number since spring/summer 1944, they would have been a problem for the allies.
With intact fuel supply and a anti-bomber-weapon like the later german R4M "Orkan" (Hurricane)
rocket, they would have blown the allied daylight bomber offensive over italy.
Imagine: 650km/h with only 750PS! Compare this with the biplanes of the beginning 1930´s,
which had almost the same power, but less than 400km/h!
Even the excellent Heinkel He 100 out of 1938 needed 1.1750PS for only 20km/h more!


http://www.orologisaiambrosini.com/1.jpeg

http://www.orologisaiambrosini.com/2.jpeg

http://www.orologisaiambrosini.com/5.jpeg


http://www.orologisaiambrosini.com/menu.h2.gif

http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v475/Coridano/3ee10d15.jpg

Specifications:
Ambrosini S.A.I. 403 italian fighter
Dimensions:
Wing span: 9,80m
Length: 8,20m
Height: 2,90m
Weights:
Empty: 1.983kg
Maximum Take-Off: 2.640kg
Performance:
Maximum Speed: 650km/h
Service Ceiling: 10.000m
Normal Range: 937km
Powerplant:
One 750PS Isotta-Fraschini R.C.21/60 V-Engine
Armament:
four 12,7mm Breda-SAFAT MG or each two
12,7mm Breda-SAFAT MG and 20mm MG151/20 cannon

http://www.geocities.com/lastdingo/aviation/sai207-4.jpg

http://www.snyderstreasures.com/eBay/Images/2005/072405/PhotoAmbrosiniCockpit.jpg

Links:
<A HREF="http://www.tgplanes.com/planfile.asp?idplane=214" TARGET=_blank>
&lt;A HREF="http://www.tgplanes.com/planfile.asp?idplane=214%5B/URL%5D" TARGET=_blank&gt;http://www.tgplanes.com/planfile.asp?idplane=214</A>&lt;/A&gt;
http://www.tgplanes.com/Public/snitz/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=574
http://digilander.libero.it/lealidellaregia/sai207.htm
http://www.finn.it/regia/html/seconda_guerra_mondiale04.htm

Udidtoo
09-14-2006, 09:10 AM
The free education never stops around here. good find.

Kocur_
09-14-2006, 01:02 PM
Let me diagree with you Woofiedog on that plane's virtues. Thats a classical "light fighter", something like CR.714 or XP-77. Yes, they were quite fast from limited or very limited power, due to thoroughly worked out drag, but unlike the latter, little can be done about weight... I dont think they talk so much about climb, now do they http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_wink.gif

woofiedog
09-14-2006, 03:14 PM
Kocur_... there is not a lot of information about this Bird out there.
I find the same author's remarks on nearly every page or web site as far as the computer search go's.

But looking at the order numbers of 3000 aircraft... I personally do not think that Italy could supply the engines for such an order looking at the total out put figures of the Mc-202 & Mc-205.

As far as changing the out come of the war... No... Allied production numbers would have null and voided anything Italy's Industry could have provided.

But none the less... it would have possibly given the Italian Air Force a fighter for which it could have fought a better battle. Looking at the Italian Air Arms lack of aircraft in this area.

As far as climb rates... I'll check and see if any of my books can shed some light on this matter.

Abbuzze
09-14-2006, 03:40 PM
Very interesting read - Thank you!

But I believe the figures are a bit optimistic.

This leightweight fighter is just 50 kg lighter than a 109E3... and also "just" 70cm shorter. Wingspan is allmost identical.

I simply doubt that such an engine, with 750HP is strong enough to reach 650 km/h. At higher speed you need one thing the most - power.

A P51 with a very good aerodynamic needs twice the power to reach 700km/h.

Nevertheless a very interesting plane ( and also nice looking! http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_wink.gif)

woofiedog
09-14-2006, 10:52 PM
Some information on the Caudron C.714.

http://www.geocities.com/ww2_lovci/arhiv/cr714XXX.jpg

Under French Skies
by: Harold E. Stockton Jr.
All photographs are courtesy of Grzegorz Slizewski unless otherwise noted.

http://lonestar.texas.net/~snolep/fighter/graphics/cr-7.gif

Caudron CR.714 belonging to GC I/145 at Billancourt France, May 1940. The upper surface camouflage scheme can be viewed at this page.

A combat engagement took place on 18 June at 5.40 p.m. A combined Polish and French formation attacked two He-111 bombers which were approaching from Rochefort. Captain Antoni Wczelik, Sgt. Antoni Markiewicz and Sgt. Delagay (French pilot) each claimed only one of the bombers being claimed destroyed between them.

On 19 June, at 9 a.m., all GC I/145 squadron personnel went to the port of La Rochelle. That afternoon a French ship arrived for the evacuation of the Polish personnel. Two hours after embarkation, the ship came back to the seaside because the captain of this ship received new orders to not go to Britain. The Polish personnel went to the British consulate where they received a promise that a British ship would come for them. As agreed upon, a British ship arrived at 6 p.m. The Poles embarked again and arrived in Britain the next day morning.


http://lonestar.texas.net/~snolep/fighter/graphics/cr-5.gif
Upper surface camouflage scheme for a Caudron CR.714 belonging to GC I/145 at Billancourt France, May 1940. The side view of this aircraft can be seen at this page.

http://www.parkerinfo.com/plans/cr7143.jpg

Following satisfactory acceptance trials at the Centre d'Essai du Materiel Aerien (C.E.M.A.) at Villacoublay, an initial service order for 100 examples of the CR.714 was placed in November 1938 under the Plan V. An additional order was placed for a similar number of fighters in early 1939, but shortly after this both contracts were canceled by the Government, as the Armee de l' Air had decided that the aircraft's rate of climb was not good enough by contemporary standards. It was stated that, though the CR.714 was comparable to other fighters then in service, its rate of climb precluded it from consideration in its designed role of interceptor.

Technical Data

Origin: Caudron Aircraft
Type: Single seat fighter
Engine: One 336-kW (450hp) Renault 12Ro1 inline piston engine
Dimensions: Span 29ft 5 inches (8.97m); length 27ft 11 3/4 inches (8.53m); height 9ft 5in (2.87m); wing area 134.55 sq ft (12.5 meters squared.)
Weights: Empty 1400kg (3,086lb); maximum take-off 1750kg (3,858lb)
Performance: Maximum speed 301mph (485km/h); service ceiling 29,885 feet (9100m); range 559 miles (900km)
Armament: four 7.5mm (0.295-in) forward-firing machine guns.


This cancellation of the CR.714 must be considered against the fact that the CR.714 weighed half the weight and with half the power of its fighter contemporaries. Another consideration for the CR.714 was the fact that each fighter only took about 5,000 man-hours to build and was constructed mainly of wood. This last man-hour figure was a significant savings over the earlier generation French fighter that had been designed by Dewoitine, the D.500 and D.510, which took an average of 12,500 man-hours to construct per aircraft.

A contemporary of the CR.714 was the MS.406 fighter which initially took about 33,000 man-hours to build, though by March 1938 this figure had been trimmed down to about 17,700 man-hours per aircraft. Too much cannot be made over the CR.714's man-hour saving in construction time over the MS.406 as the Dewoitine D.520 fighter was to be constructed in an assembly line fashion that resulted in a significant savings in construction time for each aircraft. By the 350th aircraft constructed, Dewoitine was able to get the construction time average per aircraft down to 8,000 man-hours.

http://www.parkerinfo.com/plans/cr7144.jpg

Though the French contracts had been canceled, construction continued at the Caudron plant for 100 CR.714 fighters. Part of the Plan V called for eighty CR.714s to be sold to Finland, and an additional twenty for export to Yugoslavia. Though aircraft were under construction for the Finnish order, only ten CR.714s had been delivered to Finland before the hostilities between Finland and the Soviet Union ended on 12 March 1940. Because of the CR-714s relatively high landing speeds in relation to Finnish standards, the aircraft were not suitable for the short Finnish runways.

http://www.sci.fi/~ambush/faf/ca556.jpg
Caudron-Renault C.R. 714 was a single-seat cantilever low-wing monoplane with wooden structure and retractable main undercarriage. During the Winter War France decided to donate 80 CRs to Finland. But when the war ended, only 6 were on the way, 10 were at the harbour of Le Havre, France and 3 on the way from Paris to Le Havre. After all Finland received only the first 6 that the State Aircraft Factory received between 24 and 28 May, 1940. The first test flights were carried out on 3 Sep, 1940. Due to poor take-off and landing characteristics further flights with the aircraft type were denied on 10 Sep, 1940.
Numbers: CA-551...-556 (=6)
Operational victories/losses: Not in operational use
Units: LLv 30 (1940-41).
Average/Maximum total flight time: ..
Armament: 4 wing mounted 7.5 mm Chatellerault MAC 1934 MGs
Engine/Propeller: Renault 621-R12R.03 12-cylinder air-cooled reversed Vee engine/Ratier 1644
Power: 450 hp
Max speed: 488 kph at 5,000 m; 400 kph at 0 m (factory given)
Climb/Ceiling: 2,000 m - 3 min 28 sec; 4,000 m - 7 min 2 sec/9,100 m (factory given)
Range: 900 km (factory given)
Wing span/area: 8.97 m/12.5 sq. m
Length/Height: 8.63 m/2.67 m
Empty/Max weight: 1,400 kg/1,750 kg


What is known about the production numbers of completed Caudron fighters is that by 1 February 1940 only five CR.714s had been accepted by the Centre de Reception des Avions de Serie (C.R.A.S., Center for the Acceptance of Aircraft in Series production). By four months later, this number had only risen to fifty-six.

http://www.simviation.com/pageimages/cr714-d.gif


http://members.chello.be/kurt.weygantt/images/51.jpg
Boleslaw Gladych

Full story Link: http://members.chello.be/kurt.weygantt/worldwariiaces.i...law_mike_gladych.htm (http://members.chello.be/kurt.weygantt/worldwariiaces.index.html_boleslaw_mike_gladych.ht m)

<span class="ev_code_YELLOW">Boleslaw Gladych was born on 17 May 1918 in Warsaw. In the beginning of 1938 he joined the Officer Pilots' School in Deblin. By September 1939 Gladych had not yet completed his fighter pilot's training, yet he had begun flying PWS-10, PZL P-7 and PZL P-11 planes as early as May 1939.

Escaping from the Romanian internment camp Turnu Severin he reached France, where he joined the recently formed volunteer "Finnish" Squadron, intended to take part in the Finnish-Soviet war. Except for two French pilots (Maj. Demarnier and Capt. Pougevain) all the volunteers were Polish. It must be kept in mind that Poland, following the Soviet aggression of 17 September 1939, practically was at war with Soviet Russia. Anyway this expedition never was realised and the squadron was changed to a completely Polish unit named Groupe de Chasse I./145. The appointed commander was Mjr. Kepinski, with Capt. Wczelik and Mjr. Frey as flight leaders. The unit was equipped with Caudron Cr-714 "Cyclone" fighters. This was a new and interesting fighter design, but suffered from many technical troubles. Nevertheless, these were the aircraft the Polish pilots had to fly against the Germans, and they fought bravely with them against the Germans after the May 1940 attack.

Participating in "Cyclone" (on 10 June 1940 ?) Gladych had a dramatic air duel with a Bf 109. After a long and tough combat, the German managed to hit the Polish fighter severely. But realizing Gladych's hopeless situation, the pilot of the Messerschmitt - with the call-code "13" - acted with great honour: he simply waved his wings and disengaged.

Gladych's next run-in with the call-code "13" took place on 8 March 1944. On this day American bombers flew to Berlin. In combat with attacking FW 190s, Gladych claimed one. But soon he was left alone with dwindling supplies of both ammo and fuel in his P-47 HV-M "Pengie II", facing another two enemy aircraft. The two Germans, one of them with call-code "13", held their fire and told Gladych to land on the nearby Vechta airfield. The Polish pilot went down, dropped his landing gear and prepared to land. When he was over airfield he suddenly opened fire with his remaining ammunition. Responding intensly, the flak gunners accidently hit the escorting Focke-Wulfs. Gladych gave full throttle and escaped. When he crossed the coast of the English Channel his P-47 ran out of fuel, giving him no choice but to bail out. For that mission he was awarded the Silver Star.

Epilogue. In 1950 Gladych was in Frankfurt, Germany. He accidentally encountered a meeting of the "Gemeinschaft der Ehemailigen Jagdflieger der Luftwaffe". Asked by his wartime adversaries of his war memories, he told the story about the mysterious fighter with the code "13". As he ended his story, he noticed one of the attending German pilots was really touched. It was the pilot of this "13" in all three cases. His name is Georg Peter Eder, an ace with 78 victories who was himself shot down 17 times!
</span>

woofiedog
09-14-2006, 11:42 PM
Bell XP-77

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/13/Bell_XP-77.jpg

Bell XP-77

The Bell XP-77 had its origin in a prewar USAAF request for a study of the feasiblity of an ultralight fighter that would be smaller, faster, and more maneuverable than any fighter then in existence. The USAAF was particularly interested in exploring the possibility of using non-strategic materials such as wood, fearing that a shortage of aluminum might materialize.

On October 30, 1941, the USAAF formally requested Bell's Chief Designer, Robert J. Woods, to study the problem. Six month later, Woods submitted a design for a low-wing monoplane with a tricycle landing gear and a laminar-flow wing equipped with manually-operated flaps. The structure was to be almost entirely of wood, but with a metal laminate skin.

Bell gave the project the company designation Tri-4, the designation being a shorthand for the USAAF requirement for "400 hp, 4000 pounds, 400 mph". The engine originally chosen for the Tri-4 was the twelve-cylinger Ranger XV-770-9 inverted-vee air-cooled supercharged engine which offered 500 hp. It was estimated that a top speed of 410 mph at 27,000 feet could be attained with this engine. Armament was to have been a pair of 0.50-inch machine guns in the fuselage plus a single 20-mm cannon firing through the propeller hub.

The USAAF authorized the procurement of 25 Tri-4s on May 16, 1942. The USAAF requested that provisions be made to carry either a 300-pound bomb or a 325-pound depth charge. This required that the 20-mm cannon be deleted.

Delays in the delivery of the supercharged Ranger XV-770-9 engine caused the USAAF to reduce the order to only six aircraft on August 20, 1942, at which time the designation XP-77 was assigned. In a formal contract issued on October 10, 1942, the USAAF ordered six prototypes of the XP-77, with serials being 43-34915/24920. In addition, two airframes were ordered for static tests. The first airplane was to be delivered within six months.

The program had by this time become known under the company designation of Model 32. The mockup was inspected on September 21/22, 1942. No less than 54 changes were requested by the USAAF. At that time, it was decided to install the unsupercharged XV-770-6 engine (which offered the same power up to 12,000 feet altitude) as a temporary measure for initial flight test trials, pending the availability of the supercharged XV-770-9.

It soon became apparent to the Bell design team that the XP-77 as originally planned would be seriously overweight, which if left uncorrected would result in an aircraft which offered no appreciable advantage in performance over aircraft already in production. Consequently, the Bell engineers undertook a drastic reduction program to cut the weight of the aircraft down to 3000 pounds. This rework caused costs to rise and the date of delivery of the first prototypes to be delayed. Because of the incessant delays and cost overruns, the USAAF cut the XP-77 order back to only two examples on August 3, 1943. The USAAF agreed that the engine was to be the V-770-7, the AAF designation for the Navy's V-770-6. No further consideration was given to the supercharged V-770-9.

Since Bell was already heavily committed to the P-39, P-63, and P-59 programs, the company began to request more and more delays in the XP-77 program. There were delays in the delivery of the wooden wings from the Vidal Research Corporation subcontractor, and there were problems with undercarriage retraction.

The two XP-77s were finally delivered in the spring of 1944. Serial numbers were 43-34915 and 43-34916. The low-mounted cantilever wing had a single-spar structure with stressed skin. The wing and the fuselage were largely constructed of resin-bonded laminated wood. The tricycle landing gear was electrically-operated. The nosewheel retracted rearwards into the fuselage, and the main landing gear retracted inwards into wheel wells in the wing. The flaps were manually controlled.

Test pilot Jack Woolams took the first XP-77 on its maiden flight on April 1, 1944 (April Fool's Day, no doubt a portent of things to come). Test flights showed that the performance was disappointing, a speed of only 330 mph at 4000 feet being attained. The takeoff run was excessively long, and test pilots complained that there were some unfavorable vibrations at certain engine rpm because of the total lack of engine support vibration-damping mounts.

The second XP-77 went to Elgin Field for fuel consumption and operational suitability trials. On October 2, 1944, this aircraft crashed after getting into an inverted spin as the result of a botched Immelmann maneuver. The pilot was forced to parachute to safety, and the aircraft was destroyed.

Flight trials continued with the first XP-77, but the USAAF was disappointed by the aircraft's relatively poor performance. The performance of the XP-77 was actually inferior to that of aircraft already in service. In addition, by that time in the war, any danger of an aluminum shortage had passed. Consequently, the ultralight fighter project was officially abandoned on December 2, 1944.

After cancellation, the first XP-77 went to Wright Field, then back to Elgin, then to Wright again. It was seen at various postwar airshows, often wearing spurious markings. The plane ultimately ended up as a gate guard at an air base entrance (don't know where), and remained there for severaly years until it had so deteriorated that it had to be destroyed.

Serials of the XP-77:

43-34915/34916 Bell XP-77-BE
43-34917/34920 Bell XP-77-BE - cancelled

Specification of the XP-77:

Powerplant: One Ranger XV-770-6 twelve-cylinder inverted-vee air-cooled engine, 520 hp. Performance: Maximum speed 330 mph at 4000 feet, 328 mph at 12,600 feet. Initial climb rate was 3600 feet per minute, and an altitude of 9000 feet could be attained in 3.7 minutes. Service ceiling was 30,100 feet, normal range was 305 miles, and maximum range was 550 miles. Weights: 2855 pounds empty, 3583 pounds gross, 4028 pounds maximum takeoff. Dimensions: wingspan 27 feet 6 inches, length 22 feet 10 inches, height 8 feet 2 inches, wing area 100 square feet. Armament was two 0.50-inch machine guns mounted in the fuselage nose, synchronized to fire through the propeller arc. In addition, a 300-pound bombload could be carried.

http://www.warbirdsresourcegroup.org/URG/images/xp77-4.jpg

Specifications (Bell XP-77)
Data from Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II[1] and War Planes of the Second World War[2]

General characteristics
Crew: 1 pilot
Length: 22 ft 10 in (6.96 m)
Wingspan: 27 ft 6 in (8.38 m)
Height: 8 ft 2 in (2.49 m)
Wing area: 100 ft² (9.3 m²)
Empty weight: 2,855 lb (1,295 kg)
Max takeoff weight: 4,028 lb (1,827 kg)
Powerplant: 1Ӕ Ranger V-770-7 inverted V12 engine, 520 hp (388 kW)
Performance
Maximum speed: 330 mph (290 knots, 530 km/h)
Range: 550 mi (480 nm, 890 km)
Service ceiling: 30,100 ft (9,180 m)
Rate of climb: 3,600 ft/min (18.3 m/s)
Armament
Guns:

1Ӕ 20 mm (0.787 in) cannon, firing through the spinner
2Ӕ .50 in (12.7 mm) M2 machine guns
Bombs:

1Ӕ 300 lb (140 kg) bomb or
1Ӕ 325 lb (147 kg) depth charge

Link:
http://www.military.cz/usa/air/war/fighter/p77/p77_en.htm

note Miles M.20

woofiedog
09-15-2006, 01:29 AM
Miles M.20

The Miles M.20 was a World War II fighter developed by Miles Aircraft in 1940. During the Battle of Britain, the Royal Air Force was faced with a potential shortage of fighters. To meet the Luftwaffe threat, the Air Ministry commissioned Miles to design the M.20; nine weeks and two days later the first prototype flew[1].

To reduce production times the M.20 was of an all-wood construction, used many parts from the earlier Miles Master trainer, lacked hydraulics, and had streamlined fixed landing gear. The engine was a complete Rolls-Royce Merlin XX "power egg", and was identical to those used on the Avro Lancaster and some Bristol Beaufighter marks. The design also featured a bubble canopy for improved pilot visibility, one of the first fighters to do so.

Armed with the same eight .303 Browning machine guns as the Hawker Hurricane, the M.20 prototype was faster than the Hurricane and slower than the Spitfire types then in production, but carried more ammunition, and had greater range than both. A second prototype was built for the Fleet Air Arm, equipped with an arrestor hook and catapult launch points.

As the Luftwaffe was defeated over Britain, the need for the M.20 vanished and the design was abandoned without entering production.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/49/Miles_M.20.jpg
The second Miles M.20 prototype

Specifications (M.20, as tested)
This aircraft article has not been updated to WikiProject Aircraft's current standards. Please see this page for more details.
General characteristics [2] [3]
Crew: one pilot
Wingspan: 34 ft 7 in (10.54 m)
Length: 30 ft 8 in (9.35 m)
Height: 12 ft 6 in (3.81 m)
Wing area: 234 ft² (21.74 m²)
Empty weight: 5,870 lb (2,663 kg)
Gross weight: 8,000 lb (3,629 kg)
Powerplant: 1x Rolls-Royce Merlin XX power egg, 1,390 hp (1,036 kW)
Performance
Maximum speed: 333 mph (536 km/h) at 20,400 ft (6,200 m)
Rate of climb: 2,300 ft/min (11.7 m/s); 9.6 min to 20,400 ft
Service ceiling: 32,800 ft (10,000 m)
Maximum range: 1,200 mi (1,930 km)
Armament
8x .303 Browning machine guns

http://1000aircraftphotos.com/Contributions/PippinBill/5391L-1.jpg
Second prototype built to Specification N1/41 for a shipboard fighter with jettisonable undergarriage so it could be used from catapults on CAM ships (Catapult Aircraft Merchantmen), however these ships had no flight decks so the aircraft had to be ditched into the sea after just one mission.
U-0228 first flew April 8, 1941 and later serialled as DR616.

http://www.georgiacombat.com/Miles_M20/3View.jpg

Link: http://www.fleetairarmarchive.net/Aircraft/M20.html

woofiedog
09-16-2006, 12:40 AM
Douglas XP-48

In early 1939, the Douglas Aircraft Company of Santa Monica, California submitted a proposal to the USAAC for an ultra-lightweight single-seat high-altitude fighter. The project was given the company designation of Model 312. The general arrangement drawings of the Model 312 that have survived show a rather unusual-looking low-wing cantilever monoplane sporting a wing with a rather high aspect ratio. Power was to be provided by a supercharged Ranger SGV-770 twelve-cylinder inverted-vee liquid-cooled engine offering 525 hp. A three-bladed propeller was to be used. A tricycle undercarriage was to be fitted. The wing was so thin that the main undercarriage members had to be attached to the fuselage, the mainwheel members retracting rearward into recesses within the rear fuselage. Armament was to consist of a 0.30-in and a 0.50-in machine gun, both mounted in the upper fuselage deck and synchronized to fire through the propeller arc.

The dimensions of the proposed Model 312 were to be wingspan 32 feet, length 21 feet 9 inches, height 9 feet, and wing area of 92 square feet. Weights were only 2675 pounds empty and 3400 pounds gross. The Douglas designers projected a maximum speed of no less than 525 mph for the Model 312 design!

The USAAC looked over the Douglas proposal, and were sufficiently interested that they reserved the pursuit designation of XP-48 for the design. However, upon further investigation, the USAAC concluded that Douglas' performance estimates were grossly over-optimistic, and the project was not funded. Consequently, the Douglas company pursued the Model 312 project no further.


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9c/Douglas_XP-48.jpg/300px-Douglas_XP-48.jpg

Specifications (XP-48)
General characteristics
Crew: One
Length: 21 ft 9 in (6.63 m)
Wingspan: 32 ft 0 in (9.75 m)
Height: 9 ft (2.74 m)
Powerplant: 1Ӕ Ranger SGV-770 inverted vee engine, 525 hp (392 kW)
Performance
Armament
1x .30 cal (7.62 mm) machine gun and 1x .50 cal (12.7 mm) machine gun

woofiedog
09-16-2006, 12:55 AM
The P-51F, G and J versions were lightweight developments, with only a superficial resemblance to the original Mustang.

http://www.airwar.ru/image/i/fww2/p51f-i.jpg
XP-51F

XP-51F (NA-105) 1944 = Lightweight with low-drag canopy; V-1650-3; v: 466; ff: 2/14/44. Wing design went into P-51H. POP: 3 [43-43332/43334], of which 1 to RAF.

XP-51G (NA-105) 1944 = Lightweight similar to P-51F but with 1500hp R-R Merlin RM-14 and five-blade prop; v: 472/315/100; ff: 8/9/44. POP: 2 [43-43335/43336].

XP-51J (NA-105) 1945 = 1720hp Allison V-1710-119; length: 32'11" v: 471/x/94 range: 650 ceiling: 43,700'; ff: 4/23/45. Lightweight, with low-drag cowling; fastest version made. POP: 2 [44-76027/76028].

http://images.google.com/images?q=tbn:BM_VT0CXGpuIjM:http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/research/p51-28.jpg
XP-51G

In early 1943, joint discussions were held between British authorities and North American Aviation dealing with the subject of what the next generation of Mustangs should look like. The original NA-73 had been designed to higher load factors than the British Air Purchasing Commission had required. As a result, the structure of the Mustang was considerably heavier than that of the Spitfire, and it was felt that a considerable improvement in performance might be obtained if structural weight could be reduced. Edgar Schmued that traveled to England and had inspected the Supermarine factory, and he had also studied captured Messerchmitt and Focke-Wulf fighters. In January of 1943, North American Aviation suggested to the USAAF that they build a special lightweight version of the Mustang. It was agreed that a thorough redesign would be carried out, mainly to reduce weight but also to simplify systems, improve maintenance, and enhance performance without changing the engine. The new Mustang was to be designed to a combination of optimal British and American strength requirements, but mainly to those laid down in British Air Publication 970.

The project was given the company designation NA-105. Two prototypes were ordered under the designation XP-51F, the contract being amended in June of 1943 to cover the purchase of five XP-51Fs, all powered by Packard V-1650-3 engines. Serial numbers were 43-43332/43336. The British Air Commission requested that two of these aircraft be given to then for evaluation. A request by the Technical Command for the procurement of twenty-five service test P-51Fs was not authorized, since it was felt that prototype trials should be made before any quantity production was undertaken.

Resemblance to the previous Mustang was only coincidental, since the structure of the aircraft was almost completely redesigned and almost no parts were common. Most of the changes were made in an attempt to save weight. The main landing gear members were redesigned and the wheels and tires were greatly reduced in size. New disc brakes were fitted to the wheels. The wing was slightly larger in area, and had a straight-line leading edge, completely eliminating the familiar "kink" of the earlier Mustang versions. The wing aerofoil was changed to an even newer low-drag "laminar flow" profile. The inboard wing guns were deleted, the remaining four guns having 440 rounds each. The two wing tanks were reduced in capacity to 102 US gallons each, and the fuselage tank was eliminated entirely. The engine mounting was simplified, the "integral" engine cradle for the V-1650-7 saving over 100 pounds of weight and improving the access to the engine. The hydraulic system was simplified and increased in pressure. The engine coolant and intercooler radiators were redesigned and installed in a completely new duct which had a vertical inlet which was placed even farther away from the underside of the wing. The oil cooler was removed from the rear radiator group, enabling the latter to be made smaller and making it possible to eliminate the long and vulnerable oil pipes. The oil was passed through a heat exchanger mounted on the front of the oil tank and next to the engine intercooler. The flow of glycol carried away the heat from the oil. The cockpit layout was improved (with the standard British panel being adopted), and the pilot's back armor was made integral with the seat. The canopy was made much larger in an effort to reduce the drag still further. Aerodynamic control surfaces were improved, and the tail surfaces were made larger. The ailerons were given a larger degree of movement, and the chord of the flaps and the ailerons were made equal. Still more weight was saved by using a three-bladed Aeroproducts hollow-steel propeller. Many minor metal parts were replaced with molded plastic parts.

Before construction began, it was agreed that the last two of the NA-105 airframes would be fitted with Rolls Royce Merlin 145M engines obtained from England under reverse Lend/Lease. These aircraft were designated XP-51G and bore the serial numbers 43-43335/43336.

Engineering inspections were held in February 1944. The first XP-51F was flown by Bob Chilton on February 14, 1944. The second and third XP-51F flew on May 20 and 22 of that year. Equipped empty weight was about 2000 pounds less than that of the P-51D, and combat weight was 1600 pounds less. The engine was the Packard Merlin V-1650-7 engine of 1695 hp, same as the powerplant of the P-51D. Considering that the equipped empty weight was about a ton less than that of the P-51D, the performance improvement was not as spectacular as might have been anticipated-- maximum speed was 466 mph at 29,000 feet.

Work on the conversion of the fourth and fifth NA-105 airframes as XP-51Gs began in January 1944, with the Merlin 145M engines arriving in February. Five-bladed propellers were fitted, but the XP-51G was otherwise similar to the XP-51F. The date of the first flight of the XP-51G is a matter of some dispute--most sources claim that first XP-51G was flown by Ed Virgin on August 10, 1944, but the manufacturer credits Bob Chilton with the first flight on August 12, while other s claim that Joe Barton may have taken the XP-51G up for the first time on August 9. The second machine followed on November 14. The engine was the Rolls-Royce Merlin 145M engine rated at 1910 hp., driving a Rotol propeller with five wooden blades (almost identical to the propellers of the Spitfire XIV). However, the XP-51G flew only once with the five-bladed propeller during a 20-minute flight, and all other flying was carried out with a more conventional Aeroproducts Unimatic A-542-B! four-bladed propeller. It was readily apparent that this was the hottest Mustang yet-- maximum speed was 472 mph at 20,750 feet.

The third XP-51F was shipped to the United Kingdom on June 20, 1944 after preliminary flight checks. It was painted in RAF camouflage and was named Mustang V. The RAF serial number was FR409. The A&AEE at Boscombe Down found the Mustang V to weigh only 7855 pounds in interceptor trim. They rated it very highly except for a severe lack of directional stability which required frequent heavy application of rudder in certain flight conditions.

The second XP-51G was shipped to the United Kingdom in February 1945. This plane was also named Mustang V, and bore the RAF serial number FR410. It is widely reported to have achieved a speed of 495 mph during tests at the A&AEE at Boscombe Down in February 1945, although NAA claimed only 472 mph for the other G at the same altitude. However, by this time RAF priorities had changed, and no further flight testing took place. The fate of FR410 after the end of test flying is uncertain.

Neither the XP-51F nor the G ever proceeded any further than the prototype stage. The Merlin 100-series of engines had not quite reached the stage where they were fully ready for production. In the meantime, the Packard Motor Car Company had set up its own development program and had come up with the V-1650-9 version of its license-built Merlin, capable of delivering a war emergency power of 1900 hp at 20,000 feet with water/alcohol injection. Packard said that they could deliver this new engine starting in late 1944. Consequently, this engine was chosen to power the next production Mustang, which was designated P-51H. Neither the P-51F nor the G were developed any further, although the work on these two airplanes was invaluable in the development of the P-51H.

The last prototype in the lightweight NA-105 series was the XP-51J, which was similar to the F and G models except that it reintroduced the Allison V-1710 engine to bring the Mustang full circle. The Allison engine was, however, the V-1710-119 version with a two stage, gear-driven supercharger, rated at 1500 hp for takeoff and 1720 hp with water injection at 20,700 feet. Unlike earlier Allisons, this engine had an updraft carburetor. The nose geometry was substantially modified, and all air inlets in the nose were completely eliminated. Instead, the carburetor air was taken in through a ram inlet at the front of the radiator duct and piped to the engine. A dorsal fin was fitted.

Two XP-51J prototypes were ordered, with serial numbers being 44-76027 and 44-76028. 44-76027 made its first flight on April 23, 1945, piloted by Joe Barton. The XP-51J weighed 6030 pounds empty and 7550 pounds normal loaded. It was anticipated that a maximum speed of 491 mph could be achieved at an altitude of 27,400 feet, but this was never achieved during tests because the new Allison had not yet been cleared for full power operations. XP-51J Ser No 44-76027 was, in fact, loaned to Allison so that they could use it to iron out the bugs in their engine. The other XP-51J prototype, Ser No 44-76028, was never actually flown, but was scavenged for spare parts to keep the other example flying. The end of the war in the Pacific brought all further work on the XP-51J to an end.

It is an odd fact that no inflight photos were ever taken of the XP-51F, G, or J. It seems that pilots and other people were too busy with wartime testing to schedule photo sessions. In later years, historians have looked in vain for a photographic record of these lightweight Mustangs in the air.

However, XP-51G 43-43335 has survived all these years. In the 1980s, John Morgan of La Canada, California attempted to restore and fly this aircraft. Unfortunately, the parts of the XP-51G are not interchangeable with those of the far more numerous P-51D, and the aircraft has a different center of gravity.

Specification of XP-51F

466 mph at 29,000 feet, and an altitude of 19,500 feet could be reached in 4.9 minutes. Service ceiling was 42,500 feet. Normal range was 650 miles, and maximum range was 2100 miles. Weights were 5635 lbs. empty, 7610 lbs. normal loaded, and 9060 lbs. maximum. Wingspan was 37 feet 9 1/4 inches, length was 32 feet 2 3/4 inches, height was 8 feet 8 inches, and wing area was 233 square feet.

Specification of XP-51G:

One Rolls-Royce Merlin 145M engine rated at 1910 hp., driving a maximum speed was 472 mph at 20,750 feet, and an altitude of 20,000 feet could be reached in 3.4 minutes. Service ceiling was 45,700 feet. Normal range was 485 miles, and maximum range was 1865 miles. Weights were 5750 lbs. empty, 7265 lbs. normal loaded, and 8885 lbs. maximum. Wingspan was 37 feet 9 1/4 inches, length was 32 feet 2 3/4 inches, height was 8 feet 8 inches, and wing area was 233 square feet.

Specification of XP-51J:

One Allison V-1710-119 liquid-cooled eigine with a two stage, gear-driven supercharger, rated at 1500 hp for takeoff and 1720 hp with water injection at 20,700 feet.

Link: http://www.mustangsmustangs.net/p-51/p51variants/XP-51s.shtml