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VVanks
07-06-2005, 09:05 PM
Okay, here's my problem. In every plane I've been flying, it always swerves full left when I let go of chock, or even just throttle up to full. I'd have to full right rudder to compensate.

This effect goes away after I gain some speed, but is it part of the game? or is my rudder setting messed up? I've seen other people just go straight when they throttle up, and only correct direction when they gain a little speed.

Mine just totally turns left at around 5 miles per hour.

Any hints?

archie3101
07-06-2005, 09:16 PM
try locking you tailwheel.

keep you tail on the deck alittle longer.


be ready with rudder when tail comes up and you should have it.


arch

VW-IceFire
07-06-2005, 09:17 PM
Part of the game. Little trick, set a key for locking the tailwheel and lock it for takeoffs and landings.

The effect is this.

That 1500hp or 2000hp engine infront of you is turning this big propeller. That thing is generating a whole lot of force in the direction its spinning. That means that when you firewall the throttle on the ground, your plane swerves left (or right depending on the plane). Full rudder, a locked tailwheel, slowly increasing the throttle, and getting your speed up will counter this effect.

Welcome to being one step closer to piloting a real WWII high performance propeller fighter.

9th_Spitin
07-06-2005, 09:18 PM
The effect you are experiencing is torque from the engine. Yes you will have to use alot of rudder at first until you gain enough speed for the tail to hold you straight. Also I would say to power up slowley instead of punching it to full throttle, this will reduce some of the torque effect. Also try locking the tail wheel on the planes that have that feature.

Hope this helps ya out.

archie3101
07-06-2005, 09:28 PM
lol

were we all typing at the same time

20:16 mine
20:17 ice fire
20:18 spitin

arch

MLudner
07-07-2005, 05:56 PM
To reduce the torque effect do not exceed 100% throttle while in contact with the ground.
Increase throttle gradually and smoothly.
Right rudder. Don't floor it, though, or you'll go off the right side of the runway.
Don't shove the stick down to get the tail off the ground, it will raise on its own as you gain lift.
Once your gear is off the ground increase power to maximum to pick-up speed.

I'm still getting it down myself, but these are the lessons I've learned after several ground-loops on take-off. I am still not sure exactly how many FW-190A8's I've wrecked trying to take-off with a bomb...but there have been a few.

Brass_Monkey
07-07-2005, 09:33 PM
Kicking in a little right rudder trim works for me.

AerialTarget
07-08-2005, 06:30 AM
http://www.simhq.com/simhq3/sims/boards/bbs/ultimatebb....topic;f=127;t=003631 (http://www.simhq.com/simhq3/sims/boards/bbs/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=127;t=003631)

By the way, Mludner, ground loops are not modelled at all in the game. I just thought I'd let you know!

Everyone recommends using tail wheel lock and slowly increasing power, just as was done in real life. However, I and most virtual pilots here can and regularly do instantly firewall the throttle without locking the tailwheel, and take off straight. I'm not sure whether the game is too easy in this or whether it is possible to do that in real life once you've gotten used to the airplane, but I strongly suspect the former.

SATAN_23rd
07-08-2005, 07:39 AM
Wanks, you crack me up. Your game does not have a problm ,and this doesnt give you an excuse for me shooting you down 10 times out of 11 the other night either.lol

The "problem" is Torque. The propeller wants to twist the plane in the opposite direction of its rotation, to counteract that, you need some rudder. Plus, lock the tailwheel after moving forward a bit to straighten it.

It isnt a bug, just a more realistic flight model.

Lufbery_Boy
07-08-2005, 08:04 AM
Does anyone have a link to a list of Pacific Fighters aircraft which gives information as to their trim capabilities (aileron, rudder, elevator)? I always thought the ME109 K-4 had rudder trim but my shortkey command seems to have no effect and I'm having a hard time taking off without going off the runway. Also, the Dora needs constant right rudder to stay in level flight and rudder trim doesn't seem to have any effect, but shouldn't a late-model German FW 190 like the D9 have rudder trim?

geetarman
07-08-2005, 08:15 AM
Originally posted by Lufbery_Boy:
Does anyone have a link to a list of Pacific Fighters aircraft which gives information as to their trim capabilities (aileron, rudder, elevator)? I always thought the ME109 K-4 had rudder trim but my shortkey command seems to have no effect and I'm having a hard time taking off without going off the runway. Also, the Dora needs constant right rudder to stay in level flight and rudder trim doesn't seem to have any effect, but shouldn't a late-model German FW 190 like the D9 have rudder trim?

I believe that the 109 and 190 do not have rudder trim. What you are experiencing is correct. Hitting buttons to attempt to trim the rudder on the 109/190 should have no effect.

Kit Carson noted that a pilot had to constantly apply rudder to a 109 during high speed flight in order to fly striaght. You see this in the game too!

BigC208
07-08-2005, 09:23 AM
Hi Winks, welcome to the "real" world of aerodynamics. I fly a single engine,675HP equiped Cessna Caravan for a living. If you don't dial in some right rudder trim before take-off you will have to apply a good amount of right rudder during the take-off roll and climb out. As you change pitch attitude and power setting this changes. This sim has it down pretty good. I have mapped rudder trim to one of the rotary buttons on my Cougar Hotas. I would think it is almost impossible to enjoy the sim when you have to hit a button to trim the plane constantly. It would also be nice if we had a turn and bank indicator in full view at all times in place of your seat of the pants telling you whats'going on. Stick with it.

VVanks
07-08-2005, 08:31 PM
Yeah, I guess I'll just have to get used to the new FM.

Abel29A
07-09-2005, 08:46 AM
Originally posted by Lufbery_Boy:
Does anyone have a link to a list of Pacific Fighters aircraft which gives information as to their trim capabilities (aileron, rudder, elevator)? I always thought the ME109 K-4 had rudder trim but my shortkey command seems to have no effect and I'm having a hard time taking off without going off the runway. Also, the Dora needs constant right rudder to stay in level flight and rudder trim doesn't seem to have any effect, but shouldn't a late-model German FW 190 like the D9 have rudder trim?

The thing with the 109 and 190 lack of rudder control is that the german designers made the plane steady at cruise speed. Thus there was no need for rudder trims as the plane would stay on course at cruise speeds.(Which is the speed you should be flying at most of the time) Using rudder trim causes your plane to fly at a slightly askeew angle and that drains energy/speed.

Try flying at cruise speed and your 109/190 should stay fairly steady - for the 109 its usually around the 350-400kmh mark, for the 190 a little more.

MLudner
07-12-2005, 06:00 PM
Originally posted by AerialTarget:
http://www.simhq.com/simhq3/sims/boards/bbs/ultimatebb....topic;f=127;t=003631 (http://www.simhq.com/simhq3/sims/boards/bbs/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=127;t=003631)

By the way, Mludner, ground loops are not modelled at all in the game. I just thought I'd let you know!

Everyone recommends using tail wheel lock and slowly increasing power, just as was done in real life. However, I and most virtual pilots here can and regularly do instantly firewall the throttle without locking the tailwheel, and take off straight. I'm not sure whether the game is too easy in this or whether it is possible to do that in real life once you've gotten used to the airplane, but I strongly suspect the former.

They aren't? Curious. I've experienced more than one. I've even stood an I-153 on its nose once.

TX-EcoDragon
07-12-2005, 08:12 PM
Originally posted by MLudner:
<BLOCKQUOTE class="ip-ubbcode-quote"><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-title">quote:</div><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-content">Originally posted by AerialTarget:
http://www.simhq.com/simhq3/sims/boards/bbs/ultimatebb....topic;f=127;t=003631 (http://www.simhq.com/simhq3/sims/boards/bbs/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=127;t=003631)

By the way, Mludner, ground loops are not modelled at all in the game. I just thought I'd let you know!

Everyone recommends using tail wheel lock and slowly increasing power, just as was done in real life. However, I and most virtual pilots here can and regularly do instantly firewall the throttle without locking the tailwheel, and take off straight. I'm not sure whether the game is too easy in this or whether it is possible to do that in real life once you've gotten used to the airplane, but I strongly suspect the former.

They aren't? Curious. I've experienced more than one. I've even stood an I-153 on its nose once. </div></BLOCKQUOTE>

Contrary to what the name might imply, a ground loop is an event comprised primarily of yaw, not pitch change. It is most akin to a car "spinning out" except that a car has inherent stability, and doesn't "want to" swap ends because the center of gravity is within the contact patches of the tires and relatively low (even in SUVs) compared to aircraft. In an aircraft the reason this happens is because tailwheel/taildragger aircraft have the center of gravity behind (and well above) the main landing gear. This results in the desire of the aircraft to swap ends and travel backwards. This will often lead to the aircraft rotating sideways hitting the wing, and perhaps rolling over onto it's back approx 90 degrees form it's original heading. This causes the aircraft to have very little directional stability and any sideload on the landing gear must be avoided. . .for obvious reasons this instability is of prime importance to a tailwheel pilot when on the ground. This phenomenon is pretty minimally modeled in the sim. . . I'd go so far as to say not modeled.

AA_Double_Tap
07-12-2005, 09:43 PM
Originally posted by AerialTarget:



Everyone recommends using tail wheel lock and slowly increasing power, just as was done in real life. However, I and most virtual pilots here can and regularly do instantly firewall the throttle without locking the tailwheel, and take off straight. I'm not sure whether the game is too easy in this or whether it is possible to do that in real life once you've gotten used to the airplane, but I strongly suspect the former.

There ain't much torque in that P-38 till you lose an engine, Aerial. http://forums.ubi.com/groupee_common/emoticons/icon_wink.gif

AerialTarget
07-12-2005, 11:51 PM
Er, yes... You have a point. Well, I mean the Me-109 that I fly when I go blue to balance the teams (although recent events are tempting me to vow never to go blue again no matter how great the imbalance). The Me-109 was supposed to do something horrible if you instantly went to full throttle. At least, I've always been told that you were to throttle up slowly.

My other favorite plane is the Corsair, and I also fly the Thunderbolt on occasion. My point is that with every aircraft I've tried in this game, it's possible to leave the tailwheel unlocked, instantly give full power, and yet still take off straight with the rudder. And I don't know if this is realistic or not. Ecodragon?

AA_Double_Tap
07-13-2005, 02:00 AM
I never use tail lock and do sometimes plough the fields beside the runway; but that is beacuse I am impatient. So long as throttle is increased slowly and you are ready for the nose drop and side kick it usually isn't a problem.

My readings of reports leads me to suspect that the torque is undermodelled but I think we need to factor in the lack of feedback you get being in a virtual cockpit compared to gravity telling you what's happeningin a real cockpit. I think that it is a reasonable balance.

I was listening on TeamSpeak in War_Clouds while Kahuna was telling you the finer points of flying the P-38 and it was most enlightening. I am sticking with the Mustang until my situational awareness improves a bit.

I wish the Reds flew with a bit more organisation. Even in the 334th Dedicated where the mixes are the same the pilots seem to fly quite differently.

See you in the skies.

D_T

EscCtrl
07-13-2005, 02:08 AM
You don't need much rudder or tailwheel lock.

To take off use full throttle, let the tail lift off the ground then just before you lift your plane off the ground bring throttle down to less then 60% pull up then full throttle again.

AerialTarget
07-13-2005, 02:18 AM
That is definitely not a recommended tactic in real life. By the way, in real life, the moment in which you get a lot of torque is when you hoick the tail, not when you lift off the ground.

SeaFireLIV
07-13-2005, 02:21 AM
Originally posted by AerialTarget:
I'm not sure whether the game is too easy in this or whether it is possible to do that in real life once you've gotten used to the airplane, but I strongly suspect the former.

Every one as well as AerialTarget seem to forget that the FMs we have in 4.01 are NOT the full FMs. It is a BETA. Oleg knows this and has said so himself. Here`s his quote, please read:


"V4.01 introduces the next generation pre-Battle of Britain Flight Model (FM). In this add-on we are introducing a part of the FM from our next simulation (BOB) for worldwide open beta test in our current engine. Flight model in the version 4.01 has already been extensively tested by nearly 40 real pilots from around the world and we received very positive feedback.
It is likely that some people may have a problem in their first attempts to fly with the new flight model, especially with take-offs and landings when FM is set to ‚‚ā¨ňúrealistic‚‚ā¨ô. However, once you understand the differences and get used to it, everything will fall into place. "


Basically, 4.01 FMS ARE too easy. What we have is a taste of things to come. People really should read their Readmes, there`s a copy of this on all your PCS.

TX-EcoDragon
07-13-2005, 07:20 AM
Originally posted by AerialTarget:
My point is that with every aircraft I've tried in this game, it's possible to leave the tailwheel unlocked, instantly give full power, and yet still take off straight with the rudder. And I don't know if this is realistic or not. Ecodragon?


Generally no, torque effects ( as well as the consequences of side-load on the gear) is undermodeled. Given the fact that some of our users have keyboard rudder, or low fidelity rockers etc this is probably a reasonable compomise.

nakamura_kenji
07-13-2005, 08:54 AM
can someone explain effect torque when in air as not notice anything ???0_0??? only take off. i though plane were trim for certain power and setting so that plane fly level and if go below this plane have to much trim cause plane want roll or to much power over power trim cause plane want roll other way? also i thought large increase in throttle would cause planes to roll corsair was bad for this i think read so was bf-109 but not see anysort torque induce roll on any plane?

can someone explain maybe my understanding torque wrong

MLudner
07-13-2005, 12:19 PM
Originally posted by TX-EcoDragon:
<BLOCKQUOTE class="ip-ubbcode-quote"><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-title">quote:</div><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-content">Originally posted by MLudner:
<BLOCKQUOTE class="ip-ubbcode-quote"><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-title">quote:</div><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-content">Originally posted by AerialTarget:
http://www.simhq.com/simhq3/sims/boards/bbs/ultimatebb....topic;f=127;t=003631 (http://www.simhq.com/simhq3/sims/boards/bbs/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=127;t=003631)

By the way, Mludner, ground loops are not modelled at all in the game. I just thought I'd let you know!

Everyone recommends using tail wheel lock and slowly increasing power, just as was done in real life. However, I and most virtual pilots here can and regularly do instantly firewall the throttle without locking the tailwheel, and take off straight. I'm not sure whether the game is too easy in this or whether it is possible to do that in real life once you've gotten used to the airplane, but I strongly suspect the former.

They aren't? Curious. I've experienced more than one. I've even stood an I-153 on its nose once. </div></BLOCKQUOTE>

Contrary to what the name might imply, a ground loop is an event comprised primarily of yaw, not pitch change. It is most akin to a car "spinning out" except that a car has inherent stability, and doesn't "want to" swap ends because the center of gravity is within the contact patches of the tires and relatively low (even in SUVs) compared to aircraft. In an aircraft the reason this happens is because tailwheel/taildragger aircraft have the center of gravity behind (and well above) the main landing gear. This results in the desire of the aircraft to swap ends and travel backwards. This will often lead to the aircraft rotating sideways hitting the wing, and perhaps rolling over onto it's back approx 90 degrees form it's original heading. This causes the aircraft to have very little directional stability and any sideload on the landing gear must be avoided. . .for obvious reasons this instability is of prime importance to a tailwheel pilot when on the ground. This phenomenon is pretty minimally modeled in the sim. . . I'd go so far as to say not modeled. </div></BLOCKQUOTE>

All right, then, that being the case and a ground loop actually being a ground spin is there a specific term for it when the aircraft noses over and then flips onto its back? That is what I thought was meant my the term ground loop, since the a/c is on the ground and has looped onto its back.
Not saying you are wrong, just asking. I know a lot about aviation and have some training and stick time in rotor wing a/c, but I know I don't know everything ... yet.

AerialTarget
07-13-2005, 12:50 PM
As far as I know, there's really no term for it other than "flip" or "nose over." But Ecodragon is most definitely one hundred percent correct that a ground loop is a horizontal manuever. The closest thing you can get to it in the game is what happens if you touch the ground with a wingtip while tearing down the runway at high speed.

IL2-chuter
07-13-2005, 01:23 PM
Groundloop: Go to a grocery store, find a shopping cart, turn it around backwards and give it a shove (backwards) and see how far it will go without turning left or right. In an aircraft, when this situation gets out of control, the wingtip hits the ground then, quite often, the nose. Pictures of 109's with one gear leg busted off and minor prop damage are usually groundloops during landing.

Torque: What I usually see described in posts here as "torque" is actually precession (in the game in spades). Hi-horsepower, big prop torque requiring rudder is actually a twisting propwash around the fuselage that requires right (or left, depending on prop rotation) rudder because the fin/rudder sticks out into this propwash in only one dirction from the central axis (unlike the stab/elev. No correction there, eh?) The P-40 (and Corsair, and . . . others) had the fin offset (aimed) to the left to minimize the effects of this. In a throttle off dive you need to add lots of left rudder to keep the nose straight (don't look for this in the game).

Rudder trim in 109: This was only ground adjustable but there was quite a degree of adjustment, and most pilots had their aircraft tweaked to their comfort (the flettner rod length could be transferred easily to another aircraft). What might be cool in the game would be a pre-flight rudder trim adjustment for those who never drop below 90% throttle, eh? And we can't forget the cambered fin/rudder (wing shape, top on left) which mitigated the lack of rudder trim, though not to western standards.
- - Related - - Elevator trim in 190. A very odd trait of the 190 was a total lack of retrim necessary for speed changes above (or below) 220mph. For example, you reach 250mph, trim the aircraft, dive to 450mph and . . . no trim change necessary. Trim would still need adjusted for fuel burnoff or bomb droppage.

Posting is fun. http://forums.ubi.com/images/smilies/16x16_smiley-happy.gif

Bernoulli
07-13-2005, 01:48 PM
Originally posted by MLudner:
is there a specific term for it when the aircraft noses over and then flips onto its back?

It's called a nose over!

TX-EcoDragon
07-13-2005, 02:10 PM
Originally posted by IL2-chuter:
Groundloop: Go to a grocery store, find a shopping cart, turn it around backwards and give it a shove (backwards) and see how far it will go without turning left or right. In an aircraft, when this situation gets out of control, the wingtip hits the ground then, quite often, the nose. Pictures of 109's with one gear leg busted off and minor prop damage are usually groundloops during landing.

Good analogy! I used to say ride a trike backwards and then let go of of the handlebars, but that works best for people small enough to ride trikes who incidentally are not as prone to sue when they ground loop their trikes! For best effect add some additional mass behind the rear(now front) wheels to add some a more defined CG, and a little more inertia to really kick the "tail" around!


Originally posted by IL2-chuter:
Torque: What I usually see described in posts here as "torque" is actually precession (in the game in spades). Hi-horsepower, big prop torque requiring rudder is actually a twisting propwash around the fuselage that requires right (or left, depending on prop rotation) rudder because the fin/rudder sticks out into this propwash in only one dirction from the central axis (unlike the stab/elev. No correction there, eh?) The P-40 (and Corsair, and . . . others) had the fin offset (aimed) to the left to minimize the effects of this. In a throttle off dive you need to add lots of left rudder to keep the nose straight (don't look for this in the game).


That isn't precession, that's called spiral slip-stream (P-factor and torque play a role too). The sim doesn't much deal with gyroscopic precession. If it did there would be pitch-yaw coupling such that lifting the tail (lowering the nose) would result in a pronounced yaw to the left, and lowering the tail (raising the nose/aft stick movement)would produce a yaw to the right. . . for an aircraft with a clockwise engine rotation as viewed fom the pilots perspective, reverse for those that use CCW rotation.

DunkelStern
07-13-2005, 02:11 PM
Originally posted by VVanks:
Okay, here's my problem. In every plane I've been flying, it always swerves full left when I let go of chock, or even just throttle up to full. I'd have to full right rudder to compensate.

This effect goes away after I gain some speed, but is it part of the game? or is my rudder setting messed up? I've seen other people just go straight when they throttle up, and only correct direction when they gain a little speed.

Mine just totally turns left at around 5 miles per hour.

Any hints? Turn off torque or throttle up slowly or fly Zero.

VW-IceFire
07-13-2005, 04:53 PM
Originally posted by nakamura_kenji:
can someone explain effect torque when in air as not notice anything ???0_0??? only take off. i though plane were trim for certain power and setting so that plane fly level and if go below this plane have to much trim cause plane want roll or to much power over power trim cause plane want roll other way? also i thought large increase in throttle would cause planes to roll corsair was bad for this i think read so was bf-109 but not see anysort torque induce roll on any plane?

can someone explain maybe my understanding torque wrong
Torque is present in the air as well as during takeoff.

Bf109 has quite a bit of it in the air...infact you can use this to your advantage by letting the plane spiral climb with the engines torque to keep your stable.

By using rudder and rudder, aileron, and elevator trim, you can lessen the impact of torque on your planes flightpath. Some planes have all of these controls, some have none, and some have a few.

Also, virtually all planes have a cruise speed where the speed and stability of the plane lead to a no torque appreciable situation. This mostly has to do with factory set trim...as I understand it.

Probably someone else can be more specific.

AH_Stryker
07-13-2005, 05:26 PM
S!

Your kidding me right. It's called torque and its perfectly normal to require right rudder on take-off. The tailwheel lock is a must.

TX-EcoDragon
07-13-2005, 05:36 PM
Originally posted by VW-IceFire:
<BLOCKQUOTE class="ip-ubbcode-quote"><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-title">quote:</div><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-content">Originally posted by nakamura_kenji:
can someone explain effect torque when in air as not notice anything ???0_0??? only take off. i though plane were trim for certain power and setting so that plane fly level and if go below this plane have to much trim cause plane want roll or to much power over power trim cause plane want roll other way? also i thought large increase in throttle would cause planes to roll corsair was bad for this i think read so was bf-109 but not see anysort torque induce roll on any plane?

can someone explain maybe my understanding torque wrong
Torque is present in the air as well as during takeoff.

Bf109 has quite a bit of it in the air...infact you can use this to your advantage by letting the plane spiral climb with the engines torque to keep your stable.

By using rudder and rudder, aileron, and elevator trim, you can lessen the impact of torque on your planes flightpath. Some planes have all of these controls, some have none, and some have a few.

Also, virtually all planes have a cruise speed where the speed and stability of the plane lead to a no torque appreciable situation. This mostly has to do with factory set trim...as I understand it.

Probably someone else can be more specific. </div></BLOCKQUOTE>

I think you pretty much said it IceFire, the only thing I'd add for inakamura_kenji is that torque effects are opposed, to varying degrees, by aerodynamic stability. . . given that the magnitude of aerodynamic forces increases as airspeed does the balance of power shifts more towards aerodynamics away from torque, thusly at lower and lower airspeeds the relative effects of torque will increase, this is a big reason why tailwheels are such a handful on the ground particularly around speeds in the range from 10-20 mph where there is minimal aerodynamic authority, yet sufficient speed to generate large inertial, gyroscopic, and torque effects.

Many new tailwheel pilots I fly with will often let their guard down after landing as they slow towards taxi speed under the false impression that they have completed the challenging parts of the flight at that point, as this is generally true in a tricycle gear aircraft (at least with respect to basic airmanship). It's not terrbily tough to demonstrate to them why they are wrong though. Add some wind into the equation and you really have to be on your toes. This sort of lapse of judgement isn't reserved for the new pilots though, just ask Chuck Yeager who lost it after landing in a T-6 back in 2003:

http://www.ntsb.gov/ntsb/GenPDF.asp?id=ATL04IA002&rpt=fa

IL2-chuter
07-13-2005, 08:39 PM
TX-EcoDragon. Sorry I wasn't clear. "Spiral slipstream" was what I was describing as a primary torque effect . . . what I saw most others describing (for the same effect) sounded to me more like "precession" the way they were describing it. For MY precession effect get your airspeed WAY down - less than 100mph and see what happens. (Try a hammerhead, the nose wanders all over despite propwash (assuming you have power on) over tail, this appears to be precession (maybe its just me). Reminds me of the Sopwith Camel of Red Baron 3D (Now, there was a game, eh?). Bottom line: I have no freakin' idea how to model this game any better given current (i.e. yesterday's) technology. Not perfect, but your not going to die, either.

I think everyone knows what they mean and what they're talking about . . . we just aren't communicating it consistantly well.

MLudner
07-14-2005, 01:43 PM
Originally posted by Bernoulli:
<BLOCKQUOTE class="ip-ubbcode-quote"><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-title">quote:</div><div class="ip-ubbcode-quote-content">Originally posted by MLudner:
is there a specific term for it when the aircraft noses over and then flips onto its back?

It's called a nose over! </div></BLOCKQUOTE>

Ha. Rather obvious. How silly of me.