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woofiedog
10-05-2006, 11:45 PM
http://www.warbirdforum.com/64hurricane.jpg
Likely this was one of the Hurricanes flown by the 64th Sentai. Photo was taken at Palembang in 1942, after the airfield was occupied by Kato's group; those are Japanese ground crews lounging beneath the captured plane. The type is Hurricane IIB.

Werwolf Hurricanes of the 64th Sentai

One of the most bizarre incidents in the first Burma campaign was the fate of two Royal Air Force Hurricane fighters, captured on Sumatra in the Dutch Indies, and intended to be used against RAF bases in Burma.
Following its brief encounter with RAF Buffaloes and AVG Tomahawks on Christmas Day, 1941, the 64th Sentai and its retractable-gear Nakajima Hayabusas returned to the campaign in Malaya. The group was under the command of then-Major Kato Tateo, probably the most famous of the Japanese army's fighter pilots. On January 16, Kato and his men were diverted to the pending attack on Sumatra in the Dutch Indies (now Indonesia). (The long-ranged Hayabusas were still based at the former British airfield at Ipoh in southern Malaya.) On February 14, the group supported an airborne landing on Palembang, which succeeded in capturing the airfield and the nearby Dutch oil refineries.

At Palembang airfield, the 64th Sentai took found two comparatively undamaged Hurricane fighters and put them in shape for flying. Major Kato himself piloted one of the British planes, and the other was assigned to squadron leader Capt. Anma Katsumi of the group's 3rd Chutai. Predictably, the two Japanese officers found themselves under attack by friendly aircraft, as a 64th Sentai veteran recalled. Neither was damaged, evidently, and to prevent another occurrence the tails of both Hurricanes were painted white.

Soon after Rangoon fell to the Japanese on March 8, the 64th Sentai returned to the mainland. Its new base was at Chiang Mai in northern Thailand, due east of the AVG's former airbase at Toungoo. The Hurricanes came along, evidently still flown by Major Kato and Capt. Anma. (The reinforcements would have been welcome: although it had received new aircraft at intervals during January and February, the group had only 15 Hayabusas in service when it made the move the Malaya.)

The intention was to use the Hurricanes in "werwolf" attacks on British airfields where similar aircraft were based, notably Magwe and Akyab. However, that would have to wait until the group was based nearer to the action. When the 64th Sentai took part in the big raid on Magwe on March 21-22, the Hurricanes didn't take part, since they would have been unable to make the 550-mile round-trip flight.

So it was that the "werwolf" Hurricanes were sitting on the ground at Chiang Mai on the morning of March 24, when the AVG Tomahawks swept across in their vengeance raid, ordered by Chennault to pay back for the Allied air disaster at Magwe. When the AVG pilots claimed fifteen Japanese aircraft destroyed at Magwe--more about that later--two of them were the former RAF Hurricanes. No more was heard of the werwolves, so evidently they never flew again.



Link: http://www.warbirdforum.com/werewolf.htm

leitmotiv
10-05-2006, 11:53 PM
Damned underhanded, poor sportsmanship, damned uncivilized, barbaric, poor show, really. Colonel Blimp

GerritJ9
10-06-2006, 02:44 AM
The Japanese captured more Hurricanes in Singapore and later Java, but as far as I know they were- if repairable- only used for flight testing. Perhaps some were sent back to Japan for more exhaustive analysis; certainly several ex-RAF Buffalos and ex-KNIL Brewsters made their way to the Home Islands.
First time I've heard about Hurricanes being used against their former owners, though captured P-40s apparently WERE used in action by Japan.
In principle there is nothing against using captured equipment against its former owners, as long as it is clearly marked with the appropriate national markings; captured Soviet tanks (T-34s, KV-1s etc) were used by the Germans and their allies against the Soviets, and there is a photo of a captured Panther being used in action by the British in the Panther Profile. Similarly the P-40s were marked with the hinomaru. Using captured Hurricanes in British markings, however, is not done-the cads!

Xiolablu3
10-06-2006, 03:00 AM
Interesting stuff, thanks!

Alls fair in Love and War.

One of the most succesful raids during the battle of Britain was by 3 Ju88's who came in low over the English countryside on a misty day , to the airfield they were attacking.

They put their wheels down as if they were about to land, and the Anti Aircraft didnt fire. At the last minute they raised their wheels and dropped their bombs.

They escaped unscathed and caused very heavy damage when it was taken into account there were only 3 aircraft.

Had Germany made hundreds of these smaller raids against Britain in 1940, the RAF would have found it almost impossible to counter them.

MadRuski
10-06-2006, 03:07 AM
Wernt hurricanes sold to a few countrys before the war?

Friendly_flyer
10-06-2006, 03:28 AM
Hurricanes where among the most exported fighters in the pre-war years. They could be met on an assortment of fronts flying for an assortment of sides in the early years. Hurricanes were never top dogs, but they where easy fly and repair, which kept them in business for an astonishing part of the war.

Deadmeat313
10-06-2006, 03:45 AM
@Xiolablu:

This reminds me of another encounter I read about, where a pair of Stukas seem to have mistaken an RAF base for a friendly one and approached for landing. When the planes were low and slow, and only a few feet from the ground the AAA opened up and smashed them. The witness described it as murder, because there was no chance for the crews to escape and if they€d only have been allowed to land they would have been captured with ease.

(The account did not state whether the Stukas were carrying bombs - but if they were this might possibly have been another of those attacks, eh?)

T.

stathem
10-06-2006, 03:59 AM
Originally posted by Xiolablu3:
Interesting stuff, thanks!

Alls fair in Love and War.

One of the most succesful raids during the battle of Britain was by 3 Ju88's who came in low over the English countryside on a misty day , to the airfield they were attacking.

They put their wheels down as if they were about to land, and the Anti Aircraft didnt fire. At the last minute they raised their wheels and dropped their bombs.

They escaped unscathed and caused very heavy damage when it was taken into account there were only 3 aircraft.

Had Germany made hundreds of these smaller raids against Britain in 1940, the RAF would have found it almost impossible to counter them.

Be sure that Mosquito intruders paid them back in kind manifold with similar tactics later in the war, to the extent of carrying and firing Luftwaffe 'colours of the day' whilst in the pattern at NJG airfields.

woofiedog
10-06-2006, 04:30 AM
MadRuski...

http://ipmsstockholm.org/magazine/2004/11/images/profile_romanian_02.jpg
Hawker Hurricane Mk. I
Escadrila 53
lt.av. Horia Agarici
June 1941

http://ipmsstockholm.org/magazine/2004/11/images/profile_romanian_02a.jpg

On the eve of World War II Romania was equipped with Italian, French, Polish, German and Romanian aircraft. When war was still far from its borders, Romania managed to acquire British equipment: Bristol Blenheim bombers and then-modern fighter planes Hawker Hurricane Mk. I.

The treaty with Germany gave Romania, in exchange for its oil, some Bf 109s (E and G model), Ju 52s, He 111s,He 112s, Do 17s, Ju 87 Stukas, Ju 88s, Hs 129s and Bf 110s.

A twist of irony is that at the time when Battle of Britain raged at its height, official commisions of Britain and Germany met on a Romanian aerodrome for presentation of the Hurricane and the Messerschmitt 109 fighters to the Romanian military - still neutral at that time. According to the offcial record, all delegations behaved properly and no incidents were registered...

Out of the 50 ordered Hurricanes, Romania eventually only received twelve. This aircraft, "red 3" belonged to Escadrila 53, which in 1941 was included in the Dobruja air command. Its main mission was to defend the Constanta harbour and Cernavoda railway bridge. It also carried out bomber escort missions.

Romania's top-scoring fighter ace, lt.av. Horia Agarici shot down 3 (2 confirmed) Soviet DB-3 bombers over Constanta flying this aircraft on June 25th, 1941.

The lack of spare parts quickly became a major problem for the Romanian Hurricanes and after more IAR-80s became available in late 1942 and early 1943 they were taken out of active duty.


Belgium bought 20 Hurricanes and a license to build 80 more, of which only two were completed, but most of its aircraft were lost during the German invasion. Hurricanes were licence built in Yugoslavia and 24 were delivered from Britain. A large number (2952 aircraft) of Hurricanes were sent to the Soviet Union. The Luftwaffe operated some captured Hurricanes for training and education purposes. Finland bought 12 Hurricanes at the end of the Winter War, but lost two during the transit flight. The aircraft did not have much success (only 5 kills) when hostilities began again on 25.6.1941 and their use was quite limited, partially because they had worn out when replacement parts were scarce during the Interim Peace (13.3.1940-25.6.1941) and during the new war. At least one Hurricane was captured from the Soviets during the war and flown by the Finnish Air Force. Turkey and Romania bought Hurricanes in 1939. Other Hawker Hurricane operators were the Soviet Union (2,952) Greece, Australia, Egypt, India, Persia, Portugal andYugoslavia.

A single Hurricane I was sold to Poland before that country was overrun by the Nazis.

Operators
Australia, Belgium, Canada, Egypt, France, Finland, India, Ireland (Eire), Persa (Iran), Portugal, Romania, Soviet Union, South Africa, Turkey, Yugoslavia.

* Other export users included:

Netherlands East Indies, at least twelve (possibly more) transferred to the ML-KNIL in February 1942. Nearly all were destroyed on the ground on various Java airfields in March 1942.

Belgium obtained a number of Hurricane Mark Is. Two or three Hurricanes were also built under license by Avions Fairey in Belgium before the German Blitzkrieg. with these aircraft fitted with four Fabrique Nationale (FN) / Browning 12.7 millimeter (0.50 caliber) machine guns. Some sources suggest, plausibly, that the imported Hurricanes were also refitted locally with the same armament. Some of the Belgian Hurricanes were strafed up on the airfield before they could fire a single shot, and the others were cleared out of the sky by the Luftwaffe in short order.

Some sources claim the Egyptians received 20 Hurricanes, but if so details are unclear.

Finland received 12 Hurricane Is in 1939 and these aircraft saw service in the "Winter War" against the Soviets in 1939:1940. It is not clear if they fought in the "Continuation War", which began with Finnish cooperation in the Nazi invasion of the USSR in June 1941, and if so, if they encountered Soviet Hurricane IIs, which also operated in the region.

The French operated about 15 Sea Hurricanes IICs (discussed in the next section) and Canadian Mark XIIs late in the war, apparently inheriting these aircraft from "write-offs" left behind in North Africa by the British after the invasion of Sicily in 1943, to then be brought up to flight standard by the French.

The Royal Indian Air Force (RIAF) obtained a small number of Hurricane Is for training in 1942, leading to the establishment of RIAF Squadron Number 1 with Hurricane Mark IIBs later in that year. In 1943, the RIAF received a total of about 200 Mark IIBs and Mark IICs from RAF stocks, allowing the RIAF to build up a total of seven squadrons, which fought against the Japanese in the Burma campaigns. Many of these Hurricanes were still in Indian service when the country gained independence in 1947.

Iran ordered 18 Hurricanes before the outbreak of war, but only two Hurricane Is were delivered before the conflict cut off shipments. After the war, Iran obtained 16 Mark IICs, plus two (some sources hint one) two-seat trainers, of which more is said later.

Ireland interned a number of Hurricanes early in the war, and about a dozen more were more formally delivered late in the war. Some of the Irish Hurricanes remained in service until 1947.

Poland obtained one Hurricane I for evaluation before the outbreak of the war and ordered nine more, but Poland fell to the Germans before they could be delivered. Of course, many expatriate Polish pilots flew the Hurricane with the RAF.

Portugal received 40 hand-me-down RAF Mark IIBs and IICs after the war, in 1945:1946, as a reward for Portugal granting permission to the Allies to use airfields in the Azores. These machines remained in service until the early 1950s.

Out of the 50 ordered Hurricanes, Romania eventually only received twelve. This aircraft, "red 3" belonged to Escadrila 53, which in 1941 was included in the Dobruja air command.

South Africa obtained a number of ex-RAF Hurricane Is before the war, which went into squadron service in Pretoria.

Turkey obtained 15 (some sources say 30) Hurricane Is that were successfully delivered in the first few months of the war. The Turks also apparently received a number of hand-me-down Mark IIBs and Mark IICs later in the war from RAF stocks in the Middle East.

Yugoslavia obtained an ex-RAF Hurricane for evaluation, and then obtained a batch of 24 Hurricane Is. These machines were locally fitted with eight 7.9 millimeter (0.312 caliber) machine guns. About 15 were were built by Rogozarski in Belgrade before the Germans overran Yugoslavia in the spring of 1941.
Ikarus in Zemun experimented with fitting one Hurricane with the German Daimler-Benz DB-601A inverted-vee inline engine with 876 kW (1,175 HP), on the fear that Merlins might end up being hard to get. Pilots praised the re-engined machine, but of course it never entered production.

MadRuski
10-06-2006, 08:49 AM
wow..so looks like a fair lot was given to other countrys!

GerritJ9
10-06-2006, 09:10 AM
Add at least twelve (possibly more) transferred to the ML-KNIL in February 1942. Nearly all were destroyed on the ground on various Java airfields in March 1942. So to "operators" add Netherlands East Indies.

woofiedog
10-06-2006, 11:24 AM
GerritJ9... correction made.

Thank's for the info.